Category Archives: Class Studies

A New Name (Isaiah 62:1-12)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

A New Name (Isaiah 62:1-12)

  • 62:1-2 – A new name given
    • The importance of spreading the gospel (1 Timothy 2:3-4; 2 Peter 3:9; 2 Timothy 4:2)
    • The new name = Christians (Acts 11:26)
  • 62:3-5 – The marriage relationship
    • Crown of glory = victory over evil (1 John 5:4; Romans 8:37; 1 Corinthians 15:54-57)
    • Diadem = God’s royal family (Ephesians 3:14-15; 1 Peter 2:9)
    • Hephzibah = “My delight is in her”; Beulah = “Married” (Ephesians 5:23-28; 2 Corinthians 11:2)
  • 62:6-9 – The watchmen and God’s protection
    • The watchmen are godly saints who guard the truth (1 Peter 5:8; Philippians 1:17; 1 Timothy 4:1-6; 6:10; Acts 20:28; Jude 3; Ephesians 4:11-12)
    • Continual prayer (Luke 11:5-14; 18:1-8; 1 Thessalonians 5:16-18)
    • God’s oath (Hebrews 6:13)
  • 62:10-12 – “Surely your salvation is coming”
    • Evangelism includes: preparing the way, building the highway, removing obstacles, and lifting the banner
    • Worldwide proclamation (Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 16:15-16)
    • Four identifications: The Holy People (Ephesians 2:21; 5:27), The Redeemed of the Lord (Galatians 3:13; 1 Peter 1:18-19; Acts 20:28), Sought Out (Luke 19:10), A City Not Forsaken (Hebrews 13:5)

Discussion Questions

1. What is the “new name” and where is it revealed in the Scriptures?

2. To what is the new relationship between God and the people likened?

3. Who are the watchmen?

4. How strong is the Lord’s oath to His people?

5. What is involved in evangelism, according to Isaiah 62:10-12?

God’s Merciful Invitation (Isaiah 55:1-13)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

God’s Merciful Invitation (Isaiah 55:1-13)

  • 55:1-5 – The invitation extended
    • To everyone (Revelation 22:17)
    • Salvation cannot be earned (Romans 6:23; Ephesians 2:8-9)
    • “He who dies with the most toys wins?” (Ecclesiastes 12:13)
    • Action required: incline, come, hear
    • “The sure mercies of David” (2 Samuel 7:12-16; Acts 13:34-39)
    • Christ is the faithful witness (Revelation 1:5; John 18:37)
  • 55:6-9 – Accepting the invitation
    • Action required: seek, call, forsake, return
    • Seek (Matthew 6:33; Hebrews 11:6)
    • Repentance: forsake wicked ways and unrighteous thoughts, and return to the Lord (Proverbs 23:7; Romans 12:2; Philippians 4:8)
    • Abundant forgiveness (Acts 2:38; 3:19; 1 John 1:9; Psalm 103:12; Micah 7:19)
    • Contrast between man’s thoughts and ways and God’s
  • 55:10-13 – The purpose of God’s Word
    • Rain and snow serves physical purpose
    • God’s Word serves spiritual purpose
    • “The pen is mightier than the sword” (Hebrews 4:12-13; John 6:63; 1 Peter 1:22-25; James 1:18,21)
    • “Jesus does not offer us the peace of the world. Peace is not the absence of alarm, but the presence of God in our lives.” (Michael Hatcher)

Discussion Questions

1. How abundant is God’s mercy?

2. What are “the sure mercies of David”?

3. In order to be forgiven, what must the sinner do?

4. What is the contrast between man’s ways and thoughts and the Lord’s?

5. What does He mean when God says His Word “shall not return to me void”?

God’s Suffering Servant (Isaiah 52:13-53:12)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

God’s Suffering Servant (Isaiah 52:13-53:12)

  • 52:13-15 – Exaltation of the Servant
    • “Exalted and extolled and be very high”
    • Exaltation followed severe maltreatment (Luke 23:14; John 1:1,14; Philippians 2:7)
  • 53:1-3 – The Servant despised and rejected
    • “Who has believed our report” (John 12:37-38; Romans 10:14-17)
    • He wasn’t what they expected (Mark 6:2-4; John 1:46)
    • He can still be despised today (John 12:42-43, 49-50; Romans 8:17; Matthew 25:31-46)
  • 53:4-6 – Vicarious suffering
    • Because of our sins (Isaiah 59:2)
    • Wounded or pierced (Psalm 22:16; John 19:34; Zechariah 12:10; John 19:37)
    • The folly of following human wisdom (Proverbs 3:5; Jeremiah 10:23; Judges 17:6; 21:25; Proverbs 14:12)
  • 53:7-9 – Silence of the Servant
    • Before Pilate (Matthew 27:11-14)
    • Joseph of Arimathea (Matthew 27:57-60)
    • Jesus as an example of suffering (1 Peter 2:18-25)
  • 53:10-12 – Victory and Reward
    • “The fruit of his suffering is the redemption of men effected by the offering for sin which Christ made when he went to the cross.” (Guy N. Woods)
    • “He shall prolong His days” – resurrection from the dead (Revelation 1:18)

Discussion Questions

1. Why is this passage so often read as we prepare to observe the Lord’s Supper?

2. Why was the Messiah “despised and rejected by men” in the first century? What are some reasons men today still reject Him and His message?

3. What phrases indicate the vicarious nature of Christ’s suffering?

4. In what way was the Lord’s days prolonged?

5. Identify some of the specific prophecies in this chapter and their fulfillments in the New Testament.

God’s Chosen Servant (Isaiah 42:1-10)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

God’s Chosen Servant (Isaiah 42:1-10)

  • 42:1-4 – The Servant’s ministry
    • The Servant is Jesus (Matthew 12:9-21)
    • Jesus became the Servant by choice (Philippians 2:5-7; Matthew 20:25-28)
    • “I have put My Spirit upon Him” (Luke 3:21-22)
    • Jesus’ ministry style (John 8:32; 2 Corinthians 5:11; John 5:41; John 8:50; Zechariah 9:9)
    • The grace of Christ does not negate the law of Christ
  • 42:5-9 – The Servant’s success
    • God’s power (Genesis 1:1)
    • The Servant’s righteousness (Matthew 3:15; John 5:30; Luke 23:47)
    • The new covenant (Hebrews 8:8-12; Jeremiah 31:31-34)
    • Warning against idolatry (Exodus 20:2-5; 1 Corinthians 10:14; Galatians 5:19-21; 1 Peter 4:3; Colossians 3:5)
    • The proof of prophecy
  • 42:10 – The new song
    • Motivation for the new song (Psalm 98:1-2; James 5:16)
    • “Saved people who really appreciate their situation are happy people; and what greater privilege could come to them than the opportunity to express their feeling to God in song?” (Leslie Thomas)

Discussion Questions

1. How do we know the Servant of Isaiah’s prophecy is Jesus?

2. Describe the nature of Jesus’ ministry as revealed in this chapter.

3. How is Jesus’ ministry different than that which we see among “pretenders”?

4. How does God describe Himself? Why is this description significant?

5. What is the motivation for the new song of Isaiah 42:10? Should we be motivated today as we sing?

Comfort from God (Isaiah 40:1-11)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

Comfort from God (Isaiah 40:1-11)

  • 40:1-2 – Assurance of pardon
    • “Comfort, yes, comfort My people”
    • Comfort in the New Testament (Matthew 5:4; Romans 15:4-5; 1 Corinthians 14:3; 2 Corinthians 13:11; 1 Thessalonians 4:18)
    • Comfort through companionship with God (1 John 1:6-7; 2 Corinthians 12:7-10)
    • Outline for remainder of Isaiah
      • Isaiah 40-48 – “her warfare is ended”
      • Isaiah 49-57 – “her iniquity is pardoned”
      • Isaiah 58-66 – “she hath received…double for all her sins”
  • 40:3-5 – Preparation for the Lord
    • Common practice for ancient Near East rulers
    • Prophecy of John the Baptist (Matthew 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4; John 1:23)
    • Preparation through repentance (Luke 3:3, 10-14; Matthew 25:31-45; James 2:14-17; Luke 19:8; Colossians 3:23-24; Ephesians 6:5-9)
  • 40:6-8 – The endurance of God’s Word
    • Brevity of life (James 1:9-11; cf. Matthew 6:19-21)
    • Man’s inability to save himself (1 Peter 1:22-25)
  • 40:9-11 – Shout the good news
    • The message goes forth out of Jerusalem (Isaiah 2:3; Acts 1:8; Acts 8:1,4)
    • The Messiah is God’s “arm” (Isaiah 51:4-5; 52:7-10; 53:1; Luke 1:51)
    • The Good Shepherd (John 10:14)
    • Characterized by strength and tenderness (Matthew 11:29)

Discussion Questions

1. Why is it important to proclaim comfort to the people of God?

2. What is meant by the phrase, “Make straight in the desert a highway for our God”? What obstacles are hindering your heart from fully living for God?

3. How frail is human life? Why is it important to note this when discussing spiritual matters?

4. What are the good tidings brought by Zion and Jerusalem?

5. How is the symbol of a shepherd appropriate for Christ as it relates to God’s children?

The Highway of Holiness (Isaiah 35:1-10)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

The Highway of Holiness (Isaiah 35:1-10)

  • 35:1-2 – Transformation of the wilderness
    • Contrast with the destruction of Isaiah 34
    • Nature rejoices with man at repentance
  • 35:3-4 – Encouragement for the weak
    • Everyone needs encouragement at times (Luke 22:32; Romans 15:1-2; Gal. 6:1-2; Acts 14:21-22)
    • Paraphrased in Hebrews 12:12-13
    • “Do not be afraid!” (Genesis 15:1; Exodus 14:13; Deuteronomy 20:1-3; Joshua 1:9; 2 Kings 1:15; Nehemiah 4:14; etc.)
    • New Testament encouragement (Philippians 4:6; 2 Timothy 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 1:6-9)
  • 35:5-7 – Physical and spiritual healing
    • Jesus’ answer to John the Baptist (Matthew 11:3-5)
    • Spiritual application (Revelation 22:17)
  • 35:8-10 – The Highway of Holiness
    • The way is narrow and difficult (Matthew 7:13-14)
    • Jesus is the ONLY way (John 14:6)
    • “The Way” is the church (Acts 9:2; 19:9,23; 22:4; 24:14,22; cf. Acts 16:17, 18:25-26)
    • “Fool” refers to one who is evil, not just uneducated (Proverbs 1:7; 24:7; 10:8,10; 14:3; 12:15; 15:5; 20:3; 27:22; 29:9; Isaiah 19:11; Jeremiah 4:22; Hosea 9:7; Micah 2:11)
    • The redeemed and the ransomed obtain “joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away” (Acts 2:41,46; 8:8,39; 16:34)

Discussion Questions

1. What are some of the contrasts laid out in this chapter?

2. Why is encouragement of the weak needed?

3. What connotation does the word “fool” bring with it in the Old Testament?

4. Since “no lion…nor…ravenous beast” will be on the Highway of Holiness, does that mean the Christian will not face difficulty in life?

5. Who will experience the “joy and gladness” of verse 10?

The Messianic Kingdom Prophesied (Isaiah 2:1-4; 32:1-8)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

The Messianic Kingdom Prophesied (Isaiah 2:1-4; 32:1-8)

  • 2:1-4 – “One of the most important passages in the Word of God” (Coffman)
    • Almost word-for-word the same as Micah 4:1-3
    • “Latter days” = the Christian age (Daniel 2:28,44; Joel 2:28; Acts 2:16-17; 1 Peter 1:20; Hebrews 1:2)
    • “The mountain of the Lord’s house” = the church/ the kingdom of Christ (1 Timothy 3:15; John 18:36)
    • “All nations” (Matthew 3:8-9; Acts 2:39; Acts 10)
    • “Beat swords into plowshares” – characteristic of the church, not the kingdoms of the world
  • 32:1-4 – The Righteous King
    • Who is the king? Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 31:20)? Josiah (2 Chronicles 35:26)? Messiah?
    • Princes = the royal priesthood (1 Peter 2:9; Hebrews 2:11; Romans 5:17; Revelation 5:10)
    • The truth will not be hidden from those who seek it
  • 32:5-8 – Foolish/evil vs. generous/noble
    • In the world, deception is used to gain power
    • Once in power, evil men continue to do evil things
    • The people of Isaiah’s day were deceived (Isaiah 5:20-21)
    • The foolish and wicked person does foolish and wicked things; the generous and noble person likewise does generous and noble things

Discussion Questions

1. What is “the latter days”/“the last days”?

2. Explain Isaiah 2:4 and the idea of transforming “swords into plowshares” and “spears into pruning hooks.”

3. Who do some people say the “king” of Isaiah 32 is? To whom do you believe Isaiah is referring?

4. What does Isaiah 32:3-4 mean?

5. How is a foolish person known? How is a generous person known?

Songs of Praise and Triumph (Isaiah 25:1-12)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

Songs of Praise and Triumph (Isaiah 25:1-12)

  • 25:1-5 – “Praise of God for the great things He has done”
    • Yahweh/Jehovah – God’s faithfulness
    • Elohim/Lord – Lordship/Almightiness
    • Divine destruction causes glorification and fear
    • Christ’s church offers strength and protection (Matthew 11:28-32)
  • 25:6-8 – “The Marriage Supper of the Lamb and the prophecy of the end of death”
    • Symbolism of the “feast” (Luke 14:1ff; Matthew 22:1-14; 25:1-13)
    • Removing the veil (Ephesians 4:18; 2 Corinthians 3:14-16)
    • Assurance that death would cease
    • Wipe away tears (Revelation 7:17; 21:4)
  • 25:9-12 – “The ultimate triumph of God over all His enemies”
    • Discouragement overcome by faithful focus
    • Character of Moab (Genesis 19:30-38; Numbers 22:3-6; 25:1-2; Isaiah 16:6; Jeremiah 48:29-30; 48:27,42; Amos 2:1; Zephaniah 2:8,10)
    • Motivation in promises and warnings
    • “The faithful Covenant-God has protected and sustained and fed His kingdom upon the earth and it is alive and flourishing today. In contrast, those enemies who have threatened and warred against God’s kingdom have come and gone and dissolved into dust, one after another. So shall it ever be.” (Butler)

Discussion Questions

1. How important is singing to the people of God? What are some of the Scriptural purposes for singing? Consider James 5:13 as well as Colossians 3:16 in your answer.

2. What are the different meanings of the Hebrew names of God used in verse 1?

3. What is the literal mountain of verses 6 and 10? What does it symbolically represent?

4. What is the “feast of choice pieces”?

5. Is fear (terror) a proper motivation for serving God?

The Prophecy of the Coming Messiah (Isaiah 7:14-16; 9:1-7; 11:1-10)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

The Prophecy of the Coming Messiah (Isaiah 7:14-16; 9:1-7; 11:1-10)

  • 7:14-16 – Prophecy of the virgin birth
    • Opposition from Rezin (Syria) and Pekah (Israel)
    • Fulfillment in Christ (Matthew 1:22-23)
  • 9:1-3 – Light in darkness
    • Prophecy of doom (Isaiah 8) vs. promise of joy (Isaiah 9)
    • Fulfillment in Christ (Matthew 4:12-17)
    • Jesus was the light (John 8:12; 1:9; 1:4; Malachi 4:2)
  • 9:4-7 – The basis of joy
    • Wonderful, Counselor (Col. 2:3; Isaiah 28:29), Mighty God (John 1:1; Isaiah 10:21), Everlasting Father (John 8:58; Colossians 1:17; Hebrews 12:2), Prince of Peace (Romans 5:1; Hebrews 12:14; Philippians 4:7)
    • Reign of the Messiah will be forever (Zechariah 9:10)
  • 11:1-5 – The character of Christ
    • Fulfillment in Christ (Romans 15:12)
    • Wisdom and understanding (intellectual faculties)
    • Counsel and might (practical qualities)
    • Knowledge and fear of Jehovah (moral life)
  • 11:6-9 – The character of His subjects
    • Representative of how citizens of Christ’s kingdom should relate to each other
  • 11:10 – The extent of His kingdom
    • Gentiles included in the promise
    • No more separation of Jew and Gentile (Ephesians 2:11-22; Zechariah 9:9-10; Galatians 3:28)

Discussion Questions

1. Do you believe Isaiah 7:14 to be a “dual fulfillment” prophecy? Why or why not?

2. Which of the descriptive names of Isaiah 9:6 is your favorite?

3. Who was Jesse?

4. What is represented in Isaiah 11:6-8?

5. Who is eligible to be a part of Christ’s kingdom?

“Here Am I! Send Me!” (Isaiah 6:1-13)

Isaiah A Study of Selected Texts

“Here Am I! Send Me!” (Isaiah 6:1-13)

  • 6:1-4 – Isaiah’s vision
    • King Uzziah’s death (2 Chronicles 26:4, 16-21); probably around 740 B.C.
    • The seraphim: six-winged beings; different than cherubim (Ezekiel 11:22)
    • “Holy, holy, holy!”
    • The house filled with smoke (cf. Revelation 15:7-8)
  • 6:5 – Isaiah recognizes his unworthiness
    • “All have sinned” (Romans 3:23)
    • Normal reaction – Gideon (Judges 6:22); Manoah (Judges 13:22); Job (Job 42:5,6); Peter (Luke 5:8); John (Revelation 1:17); the thief (Luke 23:40,41)
    • This vision is of the preincarnate Christ (John 12:36-41)
  • 6:6-7 – God’s forgiveness
    • “He who a moment before felt that in the presence of the Holy God sin could not exist, and that therefore he must perish with his sin, now felt that he was separated from his sin so that it alone might perish, and he might live.” (Rowley)
    • We must seek purification (Psalm 51:10-13)
    • Example of Saul of Tarsus (Acts 8:3; 9:1; 26:9-11; 22:16)
  • 6:8-13 – Isaiah’s commission
    • “Who will go for Us?” (cf. Genesis 1:26; John 1:1)
    • “Here am I! Send me!”
    • God warns of the hardening of hearts
    • “Yet a tenth”; “So the holy seed shall be its stump”

Discussion Questions

1. Why is it important to recognize the holiness of God in contrast to our sinfulness?

2. What effect did the vision have on Isaiah?

3. What duty did Isaiah have? What is our duty today?

4. Why did God use the word “Us” in verse 8?

5. Reconcile verse 10 with passages such as 2 Peter 3:9.